Monday 21 November 2022

Rust vs. Go: Concurrency in Modern Programming Languages

Rust vs. Go: Concurrency in modern programming languages

The field of programming languages is a vast one. There are seemingly countless choices you could make when trying to write software. With that in mind, it might be interesting to look at two popular programming languages: Go and Rust. Both are relatively young, and they both aim to solve very different problems at the same time. Many say that programming languages were not invented when Go was developed, and vice versa for Rust.

Go and Rust has recently received much attention in the programming language community. Both languages are statically typed and compiled, but several other differences make them unique. This article explores the concurrency features of both Go and Rust, comparing their approaches to handling concurrent tasks with shared data.

What is concurrency?

Concurrency is the use of multiple processes or threads to perform a task. It is sometimes used interchangeably with parallel processing, but it refers to the simultaneous execution of various processes or tasks.

Concurrency in current programming languages can increase performance by allowing multiple threads to run simultaneously to achieve more work in a shorter time. Concurrency also allows for better scalability by allowing multiple processes or threads to run simultaneously on different computers.

Concurrency is a huge part of modern programming languages. It allows you to perform multiple tasks simultaneously, create data processing pipelines and even solve problems that would be impossible to solve on single-threaded systems. Like CPU architecture, programs written in concurrent languages are often highly optimized for parallelism and perform better than those written in single-threaded languages.

Rust and Go in concurrency

Rust and Go are two programming languages comparable in many ways. However, Rust has a few features that make it unique from Go.

The first feature is Rust's ability to nest functions. Nesting functions allow for easier code organization and readability because it allows you to specify how a function should be called within another function.

The second feature that makes Rust different from Go is its support for concurrency. Concurrency allows multiple processes to execute simultaneously on the same computer or network connection, which can significantly increase the speed of your programs by avoiding waiting periods between operations.

A key difference between Rust and other languages is that Rust does not allow exceptions but instead uses unchecked accesses for all code paths. This means there are no "try" statements; instead, you should always assume that your program will crash at any moment during execution.

Rust also has a swift compiler known as LLVM, which allows for extremely fast compilation times (currently around 10x faster than C).

Benchmarking & Comparison

Go is a server-side programming language that Google developed. It's often compared to Rust, a systems programming language used to build low-level applications and libraries. This article compares the two languages and identifies some of their similarities as well as differences.

Go is similar to Rust in that they both are statically typed languages with a strong emphasis on correctness. When we compare concurrency performance, we realize that they both provide garbage collection, which means they don't have to worry about memory management during runtime as many other languages do.

However, with the benchmarking conditions, several differences between these two languages should be considered before deciding which one to use for your project. Go is much more lightweight than Rust—designed for single-core CPUs—and its concurrency model allows it to scale up easily as needed.

Comparing go vs. Rust for web development, Rust can handle concurrent operations without any issues or overhead (as long as all threads involved in an operation use the same data structures). But this type of concurrency is optional for most web applications.

Benchmark observations

Go has garbage collection, which Rust does not. This means there is no need to worry about freeing up unused memory -- the garbage collector will automatically do so when it runs out of space. But it also means that you can't use pointers in Go, so each variable must be declared separately (which can make programs more difficult to read).

Rust supports both static and dynamic polymorphism through type inference. In Go, you have to declare types for your variables explicitly. The difference between these two approaches can lead to subtle bugs when working with third-party libraries written in other languages and using similar names for their functions and variables through benchmark web server frameworks.


Rust and Go are two high-quality, modern languages designed to make concurrent programming easier to manage and more reliable. Rust and Go are both excellent languages with an enormous number of developer-friendly features. They're also built by communities with a strong sense of value, and they prioritize the needs of their users.

However, Rust has a particular focus on safety, whereas Go has a certain focus on simplicity. The former may be more appropriate for serious software development efforts where expertise and input from expert clients are expected. In contrast, the latter may be better suited for quick, simple development projects or where strict adherence to the convention is necessary.

However, their key advantages differ depending on what application you want to write. Suppose your primary focus is writing a server implementing services (with a heavy emphasis on performance). In that case, Go is your language of choice due to its lightweight concurrency paradigms and ability to quickly build a modular foundation for your application. Rust may be a better option if reliability is your primary goal; it has some particularly fascinating guarantees about memory safety that greatly reduce the risk of program errors in production environments.


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